Smartphone-based System for Driver Anger Scale Estimation Using Neural Network on Continuous Wavelet Transformation

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Computer engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, Hamedan, Iran


Monitoring of the driver decreases accidents by reducing the risky behaviors and causes decreases the fuel consumption by preventing aggressive behavior. But this monitoring is costly due to built-in equipment. In this study, we propose a new model to recognize driving behavior by smartphone data without any extra equipment in the vehicles which is an important added value for smartphones. This recognition process is done in this paper based on the continuous wavelet transformation on accelerometer data. Then these patterns are fed to multilayer perceptron neural network to extend the information extracted from the corresponding features. Also the magnetometer sensor is used to detect the maneuvers through the driving period. Results show the accuracy of the proposed system is near 80% for pattern recognition. Driver scale based on a standard questionnaires regarding to driver angry scale (DAS), is also estimated by the proposed multilayer perceptron neural network with 3.7% errors in the average.


Main Subjects

[1] Wiegmann DA, Shappell SA. (2003) A Human Error Approach to Aviation Accident Analysis: The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System. 1st ed. London: Ashgate Publishing.
[2] Mehri, T. (2016) Interview on Police News Agency
[3]. Hickman, Jeffrey S., and E. Scott Geller. (2005): “Self-management to increase safe driving among short-haul truck drivers.” Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 23.4 1-20.
[4].P. I. J.Wouters and J. M. J. Bos, (2000 ) “Traffic accident reduction by monitoring driver behavior with in-car data recorders,” Accident Anal. Prev., vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 643–650,.
[5]. Alessandrini, A., Cattivera, A., Filippi, F., & Ortenzi, F. (2012). “Driving style influence on car CO2 emissions”. In 20th International Emission Inventory Conference - Tampa, Florida, August 13 –16.
[6]. Seeing machines. (2016). Retrieved from
[7] Towergate . (2016). Retrieved from Towergate Underwriting Group Limited. Fair Pay a radical new approach to motor insurance:
[8] Eftekhari, Hamid Reza, and Mehdi Ghatee. (2018) “Hybrid of discrete wavelet transform and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system for overall driving behavior recognition.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 58: 782-796.
[9] Zadeh, Roya Bastani, Mehdi Ghatee, and Hamid Reza Eftekhari. (2018) “Three-phases smartphone-based warning system to protect vulnerable road users under fuzzy conditions.” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 19, no. 7: 2086-2098.
[10] Mohan, P. V. (2008). “Nericell: Rich Monitoring of Road and Traffic Conditions using Mobile Smartphones”. Proceedings of the 6th ACM conference on Embedded network sensor systems. ACM.
[11] White, J., Thompson, C., Turner, H., Dougherty, B., & Schmidt, D. C. (2011). “Wreckwatch: Automatic traffic accident detection and notification with smartphones”. Mobile Networks and Applications, 16(3), 285-303.
[12] Vaiana, R., Iuele, T., Astarita, V., Caruso, M. V., Tassitani, A., Zaffino, C., & Giofrè, V. P. (2014). “Driving behavior and traffic safety: an acceleration-based safety evaluation procedure for smartphones”. Modern Applied Science, 8(1), 88.
[13] Dai, J., Teng, J., Bai, X., Shen, Z., & Xuan, D. (2010, March). “Mobile phone based drunk driving detection”. In Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare (PervasiveHealth), 2010 4th International Conference on-NO PERMISSIONS (pp. 1-8). IEEE.
[14] Fazeen, M., Gozick, B., Dantu, R., Bhukhiya, M., & González, M. C. (2012).” Safe driving using mobile phones”. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 13(3), 1462-1468.
[15] Chaovalit, P., Saiprasert, C., & Pholprasit, T. (2013, November).” A method for driving event detection using SAX on smartphone sensors”. In IEEE International Conference on ITS Telecommunications (ITST), 2013 13th (pp. 450-455).
[16] Johnson, D. A., & Trivedi, M. M. (2011, October). Driving style recognition using a smartphone as a sensor platform. In International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2011 14th (pp. 1609-1615).
[17] James, Leon. Road rage and aggressive driving: Steering clear of highway warfare. Prometheus Books, 2000.
[18] Vaiana, R., Iuele, T., Astarita, V., Caruso, M.V., Tassitani, A., Zaffino, C. and Giofrè, V.P., “Driving Behavior and Traffic Safety: An Acceleration-Based Safety Evaluation Procedure for Smartphones,” Modern Applied Science, 8(1), p.p88.,2014.
[19] Tasca, L. (2000). A review of the literature on aggressive driving research. Ontario, Canada: Ontario Advisory Group on Safe Driving Secretariat, Road User Safety Branch, Ontario Ministry of Transportation.
[20] Eftekhari, H. R., & Ghatee, M. (2016). An inference engine for smartphones to preprocess data and detect stationary and transportation modes. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 69, 313-327.
[21] Wang, S., Chen, C., & Ma, J. (2010, April). “Accelerometer based transportation mode recognition on mobile phones”. In IEEE 2010 Asia-Pacific Conference on Wearable Computing Systems (pp. 44-46).
[22] Reddy, S. e. (2010). “Using mobile phones to determine transportation modes”. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN) 6.2: 13.
[23] Chu, H., Raman, V., Shen, J., Kansal, A., Bahl, V., & Choudhury, R. R. (2014, January). I am a smartphone and I know my user is driving. In Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2014 Sixth International Conference on (pp. 1-8). IEEE.
[24] Kittler, J. and Illingworth, J., 1986. Minimum error thresholding. Pattern recognition, 19(1), p.41-47
[25] Yang, Letian. (2007)”Driver speed and acceleration behavior on Canadian roads.” PhD diss., University of Ottawa.
[26] Huang, Ding-wei. (2002)”Lane-changing behavior on highways.” Physical Review E 66.2: 026124.
[27] Iraj Shakirinia, Mehri Mohammad Pour. (2010) “Relationship between personality traits, mental health and aggression with driving habits in high risk drivers”. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Volume 18, Issue 3, Special Issue of the Conference on Risky Behaviors.
[28] Hassan Haghasheni, Mary Hoseini, Masoumeh Jamshidi, Hamidreza Azizi. (2008) “The Relationship between Personality Characteristics and Driving Behavior in Shiraz City”. Hakim Research Journal, Autumn 87, 11th Edition, No. 3
[29] Mojgan Ahmadpour Ardeh Janni. (2015) “A survey on the relationship between personality traits and the degree of anger in people with driving violations”. Second Scientific Conference on Educational Sciences and Psychology, Social and Cultural Diseases of Iran.
[30] Mahrokh Borairi, Alireza Esmaili. (2011,March) “ The Role of Personality Characteristics in Risky Driving. 10th International Conference on Transport and Traffic Engineering.
[31] DePasquale, J. P., Geller, E. S., Clarke, S. W., & Littleton, L. C., (2001) “Measuring road rage: Development of the propensity for angry driving scale,” Journal of Safety Research, pp. 32, 1– 16.
[32] Reason J, Manstead A, Stradling S, Baxter J, Campbell K. (1990) “ “Errors and violations on the roads: a real distinction?,” Ergonomics, Vols. 33.10-11: 1315-1332.
[33] Deffenbacher, Jerry L., Eugene R. Getting, and Rebekah S. Lynch. (1994),”Development of a driving anger scale,” Psychological reports 74. 83-91.,
[34] Kazemeini, Takhtam, Ganbari Hashem Abadi, Bahram Ali, Modaress Gharavi, Morteza Esmaeilizadeh, Masoud. (2011)”The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Reducing Anger and Driving Aggression; Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 10.
[35] Sullman, M.J., Gras, M.E., Cunill, M., Planes, M. and Font-Mayolas, S., (2007). “Driving anger in Spain. Personality and Individual Differences”, 42(4), pp.701-713.
[36] Li, F., Li, C., Long, Y., Zhan, C. and Hennessy, D.A., (2004). “Reliability and validity of aggressive driving measures in China. Traffic injury prevention”, 5(4), pp.349-355.
[37] Sullman, M.J., Stephens, A.N. and Yong, M., (2014). “Driving anger in Malaysia. Accident Analysis & Prevention”, 71, pp.1-9.
[38] Trappenberg TP (2002) “Fundamentals of Computational Neuroscience”. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[39] Deffenbacher, J.L., (2008). “Anger, Aggression, and Risky Behavior on the Road: A Preliminary Study of Urban and Rural Differences”. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(1), pp.22-36.
[40] Hennessy, D.A. and Wiesenthal, D.L., (1997). “The relationship between traffic congestion, driver stress and direct versus indirect coping behaviors”. Ergonomics, 40(3), pp.348-361.
Volume 1, Issue 1
Winter and Spring 2020
Pages 113-124
  • Receive Date: 24 November 2018
  • Revise Date: 06 February 2019
  • Accept Date: 12 February 2019